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total sl-prokeys hits since April, 2003

On Thursday, August 21, 2003, at 2:45pm, my wife of 34 years, Rebecca, died in my arms in an emergency room.

The last words we spoke were in perfect synchronization: "I love you with all my heart."


We invented the LSCA-3

Please read ALL THREE LSCA pages.  Thank you.

Page 1 - Page 2 - Page 3


Now in its 3rd generation, the LSCA-3 permanently eliminates Leslie motor switching problems.
It's completely silent and reliable, and controls stop, chorale and tremolo.
Many features are integral to the LSCA-3, making this a highly desirable installation
for all professional Hammond players and recording studios.



LSCA-3 has proven itself to be the last update to our original LSCA Leslie Switching Control Adapter device

It's been described as "simple", "effective", and even "elegant"  

In one word, it's now .... perfect


The "thing" on the right is the Amphenol "retainer ring".  I believe it's made of very light gauge aluminum, and worth about $0.01 - $0.02 each. 

Every time a Leslie cable is plugged in or unplugged, it puts stress and strain on the "retainer ring". 

The "retainer ring" is the only thing holding the connector to the chassis. (both Hammond and Leslie amp)

It can't hold the connector firmly and rigidly in place, so the connector wiggles around in the chassis.  Sooner or later, the "retainer ring" falls off.

If you're lucky, the "retainer ring" doesn't short out the 110VAC, pins 3 and 4, or cause any other problems.

Once it lets go, you must remove and disassemble the whole chassis box to put the "retainer ring" back into the shallow slot in the Amphenol.

If you study the picture, you'll see the "retainer slot" really is very shallow.

I've been there myself too many times, and I've seen far too many problems - including electrical shorts - with these connectors. 

They were questionable for this kind of use in the 1930s.  In my opinion, they're just problematic junk.

I have some questions.  How many chassis connectors have you EVER seen that weren't fastened solidly to the chassis with threaded screws (example: XLR, Neutrik, SpeakOn, etc., connectors) or with threaded nuts, flats, and lock washers? (example: 1/4" phone jacks on amps, mixers, effects pedals, synthesizer outputs, etc.)

Why are the tube sockets firmly riveted (or screwed) to the chassis in Hammonds and Leslies?  Why didn't they just use "retainer rings"?

My opinion is simple: in the early days of Hammonds and Leslies, Amphenols were available - and cheap.  There probably weren't a lot of alternatives in the same price range, either.

And - there's another point to consider: once Hammond committed to Amphenols as their "standard" connector, it would be a hell of a task to convert and change all the existing Hammonds, and Hammond Tone Cabinets, and cables to a different connector.   


Hammond Organ Company was - in a manner of thinking - "trapped in a corner" with Amphenols.  And no logical way out.

When the "production department" needs 200,000 connectors, the "financial department" looks for the least expensive way to provide those components, and that has to be approved by the "purchasing department".  Every additional $0.10 going out, decreases the overall PROFIT coming in.  It's simple, basic economics to cut costs wherever possible. 

But connectors are only one example.  Foam instead of felt in Hammond manuals?  Lower quality cabinets and veneer?  Lacquer insulation in the manuals instead of the older, reliable, cloth insulated wiring?  Particle board instead of real 5 ply plywood in Leslie cabinets?  I could go on and on, but I think you've got the idea. 

My $0.10 example is NOT accurate - it's only an example number.  These companies were cutting corners to save DOLLARS.  When you multiply 200,000 units and a $2.92 cost cut, that's a $584,000.00 savings.  Good for the company's PROFIT line - not very good for the end buyer, though.  I recall reading somewhere that Hammond sold well over TWO MILLION (2,000,000) organs in the U.S., and Leslie (very likely) sold a similar number of units.  This should give you something to think about. 

LSCA-3 is World-Compatible

I live in the U.S. - so I needed to control U.S. power .... 110VAC.  BUT - every part in an LSCA-3 is also able to work with world-wide power.  The CII relays are rated for 330VAC, and the AC to DC converters (the control voltage) are just as popular (and available) around the world as they are in the U.S. 

The CII relays can work with a wide range of control voltages and can also switch a wide range of motor voltages.  The spec sheet on the installation and construction page shows this clearly.

This means you can build an LSCA-3 no matter where you live .... U.S., Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, Australia, Japan .... anywhere.

UPDATE - September 2013


I recently learned some (not all) 220VAC mutant Leslies have 110VAC motors in them.  I never knew this. 

In my opinion, this is absolutely ridiculous in a European 220VAC country.  It's further proof that the Leslie company was cutting corners for more profit - AGAIN

I've never seen a European (220VAC) Leslie

I've never even seen a solid state Leslie (I've only seen a few pictures on the internet)

For the mutant Leslies, a step-down transformer (220VAC down to 110VAC) would be required to use LSCA-3. 

This is actually a simple addition - but it kind of breaks my heart, too. 

We struggled with LSCA for years, working towards a definite goal: ultimate simplicity, the smallest control box possible, and only three (3) parts. 

We worked very, very hard to make LSCA-3 SO SIMPLE that anyone, anywhere could build their own - without ANY extra components. 

While studying the link above, I learned that some countries have multiple "standards" - 110VAC over here, 220VAC over there. 

This is not a level playing field

It must be a real challenge trying to play in Japan or Cuba, for example.  So, I should rewrite this part:


LSCA-3 MIGHT be world compatible, depending on voltages, frequencies, and ridiculous mutant Leslie motors. 

All our experiences (and design) have been with STANDARD voltage/frequency applications and vintage TUBE Hammonds and Leslies. 

And - to add some logic to the mix - the only power typically available in the U.S. is 110VAC/60Hz.




The best answer to that question is "solve problems".  For many years, beginning in 1963, I had problems with three (3) specific parts: Amphenol connectors, the "1940-designed Leslie adapters", and the relays in the Leslie amps.


For a long time, I just bought new parts, and replaced the bad parts when they failed or broke.  After awhile, I realized I wasn't solving the problems, I was just buying more of the same problems.  So I looked around to see if there were any alternatives.  The group's guitar player helped me, because I didn't know anything about electronics, and he owned a multimeter.


Slowly - very slowly, due to my ignorance - I began to solve the problems.  I found some steel military cable connectors which were so strong, we could probably drive a tank over them.  They certainly were ugly, but they were strong.  Immediately, Amphenol breakage went down to zero.


Through the years, more devices were tested, and more experiments were done.  All of them ended up in the garbage. 


The earliest one was a ridiculous "rotary" relay, which turned a shaft with cams, to open or close the contacts. 

That one went in the garbage after a few hours - about $24.00 right down the drain. (in 1964, $24.00 was quite a bit of money to just throw away)


The next experiments weren't very good, either - they used relays which caused a "pop" (which was really a "BANG!") in the group's PA system every time the switch was used.  That was unacceptable. 


I learned about replaceable, octal base, plug-in type relays, but most of the time, they also caused the "BANG!" in the PA.  An electronics friend tried to help me with the problem.  We tried using diodes and caps on the relays, but that didn't stop the "BANG!", either.


In 1969, Rebecca, my wife, also became interested in Hammonds and Leslies.  She enjoyed working on them, too.


But the failures (still due to my ignorance) went on for quite awhile. 

In 1990, we located AMP-CPC connectors.  As soon as we first saw one, we knew it had great potential for Hammond/Leslie connections.  That prompted me to request a complete AMP catalog, call their sales rep, and learn about different configurations.  The more we read and asked, the more we were convinced - these connectors were exactly, precisely what I'd been searching for since 1963.

About the same time, we also discovered solid state, DC controlled relays.  And then, LSCA-3 evolved pretty quickly.


Repeating myself, I had problems with three (3) specific parts: Amphenol connectors, the "1940-designed Leslie adapters", and the relays in the Leslie amps.


LSCA-3 solves all 3 problems at once

Another problem: I also had problems with the Leslie half moon switch cases.  They were typically mounted (permanently) with wood screws, and broke regularly - especially going through doorways.  I had to solve that problem.  Velcro!

I played on the road constantly for many years, and probably broke about 250 half moon switch cases during that time.  I believe I used to buy six (6) of them at a time so I could have plenty of spares.  Since using Velcro, I can remove the switch when the Hammond is moved.  I have never broken a Leslie switch since I started using Velcro.



LSCA-3 is a small motor control box which provides dependable, outboard control of existing slow and fast motors, plus a stop or brake position.  It does not turn fast motors into slow motors.  It is mounted inside the Hammond cabinet, not inside the Leslie, and works with any model Leslie that has AC motors.  LSCA-3 will work perfectly with single speed models, and is ready when you are, if you want to convert a single speed Leslie to two speed.


Excluding terminal strips and wiring, there are exactly THREE parts in an LSCA-3 control box. 

TWO of the parts are identical, expensive, solid state CII relays which can easily control eight (8) Leslies.  I better repeat that: THREE (3) PARTS.


1 2 3


If you're wondering about all that black silicone in pictures 2 and 3, we tried to PROTECT THE PRIVACY OF OUR DESIGN from other people reproducing (stealing) it.  The pictures are an early LSCA-3, and pretty soon, we stopped using black silicone.  We decided to supply a parts list with exact model numbers, and a detailed wiring diagram.  We sent them to all LSCA-3 owners.  We continued to use clear silicone, and the wiring was easily identifiable.


But - once the silicone dries, repairing a problem would be very difficult. (repair was never needed, but it's something to consider) 


I did disassemble one, once - just to try it myself.  I had to re-wire the connections, (I just cut all the wiring during that disassembly - I didn't want to waste hours peeling silicone) nothing was damaged, and I rebuilt it and used it myself.  Silicone is pretty hard to remove once it dries, but it can be done - especially if you're very patient.    


We had a simple "rule": if an LSCA-3 failed, for any reason, a new control box would be shipped out instantly on Overnight FedEx, at our expense.

(that never happened either, but we kept several on hand, packed, sealed, and ready, just in case)


One LSCA-3 will control as many Leslies as you might care to connect, up to eight (8).  My own installations have been used with eight (8) Leslies at once.


LSCA-3 was designed for vintage 122/147/31/145/142/45/21/22 etc. types of Leslies.  The criteria is simple:


If there are AC motors in the Leslie, LSCA-3 can control the Leslie motors


LSCA-3 includes a prewired 6' (six feet long) 3 position hand switch, but does not include the half moon case for the hand switch.


LSCA-3 does not require special or individual connectors or adapters for different types of Leslies or Hammond Tone Cabinets.  This means that any LSCA-3 outlet on the Hammond can connect to any Leslie or Hammond Tone Cabinet in your system, balanced or unbalanced, 2 speed or single speed.  Even no speed.  (ie; Hammond Tone Cabinet)  No more 147/122 separate outlets.  

For the "unusual" 9 pin, 11 pin, or multi-channel type Leslies, I'm pretty sure that LSCA-3 will work, but could possibly require an additional cable from the Hammond to the Leslie.  I've never even seen one of these "unusual" models, so I can't speak with any knowledge.  I can say this again:

If there are AC motors in the Leslie, LSCA-3 can control the Leslie motors


LSCA-3 replaces or bypasses any existing Leslie adapters.  It provides a straight path to the Leslie amp for signal and power - there are no components in the signal path.  Motor control switching is completely isolated, and is not performed over the signal cables, as with 122 type adapters.


Because of this, the associated hum, buzz, clicks, pops, and bangs all disappear immediately.  The response time from slow to fast to off is instantaneous. 

There is no volume drop or change when switching speed.  The circuitry in the Leslie amp no longer controls the motors, it is done entirely by the LSCA-3, and the Leslie amp can do what it's designed for: amplify the organ signal.


Unlike most relay replacements, the LSCA-3 provides the player with the all-important STOP position.  For many players, STOP is absolutely essential.


Nothing really significant is changed or modified in an LSCA-3 installation, except the original Leslie switching circuit no longer controls the motors.  Instead, the LSCA-3 does.  Nothing major in the Leslie really needs to be altered to use the LSCA-3, the motor control circuit is bypassed or ignored, and is not connected to the motors.  Because of this, if there was ever a need to "return to stock", it would be a very simple job.


My instruments are used professionally, and I have no tolerance for exotic hookups, wire tangles, extra jumper cords, etc.  My requirements specify one, single, multi conductor cable going to each Leslie.  For that reason, I tried to design a system that would allow me to replace the specific components that have caused problems, and yet retain both function and appearance as closely as possible to an original, stock installation.  LSCA-3 flawlessly achieves that goal.  Once installed, it's totally transparent.




Adding Leslies of almost any type with LSCA-3 is very simple.  All that's needed is another Leslie cable, another outlet on the Hammond, and a chassis connector for the new Leslie amp.  Approximately 60 minutes of wiring work, and it's done.  No Leslie adapters, no special hookups, and most of all - no concern with switching.   It's already done in the LSCA-3.  Most LSCA-3 users install additional Leslies in about one hour.




I've been developing LSCA in several "versions" since I started playing Hammonds professionally, in 1963.  I've tried everything I could find to resolve the problems - clicking, pops, bangs, and no-response switching, volume drops every time the switch is used .... on and on and on.  Through the years, I've met and spoken with several other players - probably well over a hundred - who have put up with these same problems, and felt like I did.


All of my personal Hammonds and Leslies, as well as the Hammonds I rebuild and rent, DO NOT use stock Amphenol connectors.  Because of the problems with Amphenols, I don't recommend them, especially for professional applications.  See this page


Instead, I use and highly recommend the expensive AMP-CPC multi pin connectors, featuring locking rings and gold socket and pin contacts.  I have used these connectors exclusively since 1990 with no problems at all.  I love them - because they have never caused ANY problems.  (see associated pictures and page links)


The AMP-CPC connectors are easily the greatest cost factor in an LSCA-3 installation.  For a four (4) Leslie system, they actually cost more than the LSCA-3 control box itself.  I feel they're worth every dollar spent, and would never change back to Amphenols for any reason.

For in-depth details, read this.





We built several "Try Before You Buy" LSCA-3s (Rebecca's idea, of course) and shipped them all over the country.   I'll refer to them as "LSCA-T".

They required a $200.00 deposit, refundable if the the "LSCA-T" was returned in 30 days.      


Now you're asking, "What IS it?"  It's an LSCA-3 (all components are identical), but there's a major difference - there's nothing to install




As shown below, it's a standard LSCA-3 control box with the three (3) position Leslie switch mounted inside it.  It has a (non-removable) power cable, which plugs into any 110VAC outlet, and it has another (non-removable) cable (about 20' long) with a standard QUAD electrical outlet box at the end of it.  In the quad box are one (1) white and one (1) brown duplex electrical receptacles.


To use it, just unplug the white (slow motor) and brown (fast motor) plugs on the Leslie amp, and plug them into the "LSCA-T" outlets - white to white, brown to brown.  Then plug the power cord into a 110VAC outlet.  THAT'S ALL THERE IS TO IT.  Try some motor switching. 


An interesting point: the Leslie amplifier doesn't have to be connected to a Hammond for this test - we're only testing motor switching. 

The "LSCA-T" power cord supplies the 110VAC necessary for testing.


While you're testing this with your Hammond, you'll have to lay the control box on the Hammond bench, hold it in your lap, or tape it down on the Hammond bench. 

One "tester" told us he went out and played some shows with the "LSCA-T" taped to his left leg - with duct tape!

We built the test units this way intentionally, so they can't be mounted very easily.  We mounted the Leslie switch IN the box, thinking it would be doubtful that anyone would - sorry to say it - steal one of these from us.  Every one of them was returned - proving there really are honest people in the world.  Many (not all) players returned the "LSCA-T", and instructed us to apply the deposit to their LSCA-3 purchase.

During testing of the "LSCA-T", your existing Leslie switch won't do anything, and I suggest you don't touch it during testing.  It may cause pops or bangs, but they won't be coming from the "LSCA-T" - they'll be coming from the Leslie amp or the "1940-designed Leslie adapter". 

For a fair test, only use the switch on the "LSCA-T" box to control the Leslie motors.



Thank you ALL very much for the timely returns. 

If you did or didn't decide to buy an LSCA-3 isn't even important - your HONESTY is important.

THE CONTROVERSY - still going on since BEFORE 1999

The following message was forwarded to me. 

It was written publicly by the dishonest, self-appointed princess of HAMTECH, a very strange woman (?) named Adrianne Schutt, who has obvious difficulty with truthful facts, and is quite critical of most of my website.  Adrianne apparently loves talking about me - behind my back, of course.   

Adrianne's text is RED.  My text is BLUE.

Delivered-To: steve at sl-prokeys dot com
To: "'Steve Leigh'" <steve at sl-prokeys dot com>
Subject: [HL] Who is Prokeys Steve Leigh
Date: Wed, 1 Jun 2011 19:57:05 -0700

-----Original Message-----
From: The Hammond Technical List [mailto:HAMTECH@MAIL.HAMTECH.ORG] On Behalf Of Adrianne Schutt
Sent: Wednesday, May 25, 2011 3:46 AM
Subject: Re: [HL] Who is Prokeys Steve Leigh

At 09:18 PM 24/05/2011, Bob wrote:
>You must be young and don't know business etiquette. If he wasn't the real deal as you say,
>he wouldn't go to all the trouble of putting up a website like he has if he wasn't.

Having a website doesn't necessarily mean you're good. It doesn't even guarantee that a person exists. If you've seen the movie Catfish (or its episode on 20/20), you've seen a walkthrough of how one unemployed woman could invent a whole family, all apparently interacting with each other (and outside real people) on Facebook.
A technical service professional/expert's website should not contain:


        --"half-naked women I'm mad at"
        --a massive, rambling attack section, using a self-constructed award for fighting as an entrance graphic
        --a rant against a totally unrelated sport
        --you've just gotta click this one for yourself...words fail me

Do you have the authority to dictate what should or should not be on my website, Adrianne?  I don't think so.   

I don't have the link to Steve's "how to build, load, and use a suicide machine" section anymore.


That's dishonest. 

We never wrote about "how to build, load, and use a suicide machine".  The words "suicide machine" are your words.

Why do you lie so much, Adrianne?


Screens of pics of his home-built auto-injection machine, some showing the needle inserted into his arm. 


That's also dishonest.

There are no pics of any needle inserted into any arm.

Why do you lie so much, Adrianne?


Instructions on which drugs to use, in what amounts, and how to achieve the "proper" flow rate through the machine.


That's also dishonest.

There are no instructions.  Our webpage (singular) is nothing like you claim.

Why do you lie so much, Adrianne? 


Yes, this actually was on the "business" site for quite some time - front and center graphic link, main page.


That's also dishonest.

We never had a "business site".  Hammond/Leslie work was always our part-time hobby.

Why do you lie so much, Adrianne?


Any of the IRC chat regulars from a few years ago can confirm.


That's also dishonest.

I challenge you to provide the truth.

Why do you lie so much, Adrianne?


Anyway....Colin, to answer your question (since I'm the admin, and have been here ~14 years):


Read Colin's email to me.  It seems he can also see right through you and your "kiddy-kindergarten group".


Steve's been around Hammonds forever, and plays really well...


Now there's an honest statement.


but some of his tech can be a little iffy.


That's also dishonest.

What and why is "iffy"?  Let's ask a real tech


Search your own archives, and read.  Look at what many, many people had to say about our "iffy" "tech".


A good start is Peter Abrams, James Harton, Dave Kalil, John Gros, Detavio Crudup, Bill Sims, Bernardo Paratore, Al Goff, Dominick ter Meer, Kelly Dunn, and Bob Beckham.  There are dozens more.  Just look through your archives.    


Read what people who have been here, examined and played our Hammonds, and been to some of our shows, have to say about our "iffy" Hammond work. 

Read the messages from people that have received detailed technical solutions to their Hammond problems from us. 

Your archives are overflowing with them, and so are mine.  I challenge you to deny those public messages.    


LSCA is the equivalent of your mechanic modding your car to only take his own custom wheel rims. Anyone else gets a flat, they pull out the spare and keep trucking...but your spare doesn't fit anymore, nobody else has one that would fit, and you're stranded.


That's also dishonest.

Every part in LSCA is available from most online electronic supply companies, in unlimited quantities.

Why do you lie so much, Adrianne?


Steve always did like treating people like chew toys, but got way out of hand after his wife died. That's why he's not on this list anymore.


That's also dishonest.

I unsubscribed before Rebecca was hospitalized in early July, 2003 - prior to her death on August 21, 2003.

Why do you lie so much, Adrianne?


If you're looking to have work done, tell the boys where the organ is, what you think you want done, and why (what you've observed, what you don't like, what

you would like the result to be). It'll help the group recommend a good solution.


Have fun!

Ad  ;->


Adrianne Schutt has a a lot to say.  But almost all of it is dishonest.


Thanks for your interest in LSCA-3. 

Steve Leigh

LSCA-3 Users Link


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